Renal failure and hemodialysis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 during the first wave in Lima, Peru

Keywords: Renal Failure, COVID-19, Renal Dialysis

Abstract

Introduction: Kidney failure is one of the most frequent extrapulmonary complications in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, leading to poorer outcomes, and this may have serious consequences for the Peruvian health system. Nonetheless, there are studies comparing patients with acute kidney failure (AKF) and chronic kidney failure (CKF) against healthy subjects. Objective: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and kidney failure, and to assess the effect of the type of kidney failure and undergo hemodialysis with respect to negative clinical outcomes. Methods: This is a descriptive cohort study that included patients with some kind of kidney failure and COVID-19 who were hospitalized
between March and June 2020, and who had a consultation with the nephrology service. Kidney failure was classified as acute, chronic, and stage V chronic undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Data with respect to mortality, inotrope use, mechanical ventilation, and acute hemodialysis was collected. Results: Two-hundred and seventy-nine patients were included, 22.6% had acute kidney failure, 33.3% had chronic kidney failure, and 44.1 had stage V chronic kidney failure. General mortality rate was 32.0%, and 27% received inotrope agents and underwent mechanical ventilation. Amongst patients with AKF and CKF, 12.9% underwent hemodialysis for the first time. Studied adult subjects with CKD and stage V CKD undergoing hemodialysis had lower frequency of diabetes mellitus (23.7% and 43.9%, respectively) and high blood pressure (31.2%
and 59.4%, respectively) compared with adult subjects with AKF (81.0 and 73%, respectively) (p<0.001). The occurrence of AKF was associated with mechanical ventilation (RPa: 6.46), inotrope use (RPa: 7.02), and death (RPa: 2.41), compared with those who had CKF. Amongst those subjects who had AKF or CKF, those who underwent dialysis for the first time were more likely to die (RPa: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.20–3.94) compared with those who did not undergo hemodialysis. Acute hemodialysis may be an effect modifier for the association between the type of kidney failure (AKF or CKF) and negative clinical outcomes (p<0.001). Conclusion: It is important to identify hospitalized patients with COVID-19 that may develop AKF and/or who may need acute hemodialysis, since they are at high risk for a poor clinical outcome.

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Published
2022-02-04
How to Cite
1.
Meneses-Liendo V, Medina Chávez M, Gómez Lujan M, Cruzalegui Gómez C, Alarcón-Ruiz CA. Renal failure and hemodialysis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 during the first wave in Lima, Peru. Acta Med Peru [Internet]. 2022Feb.4 [cited 2022Dec.1];38(4). Available from: https://amp.cmp.org.pe/index.php/AMP/article/view/2169
Section
ORIGINAL ARTICLES