ACTA MEDICA PERUANA Acta Médica Peruana es la revista científica oficial del Colegio Médico del Perú; tiene como finalidad difundir el conocimiento médico a la comunidad médica y científica a nivel nacional e internacional. Colegio Médico del Perú en-US ACTA MEDICA PERUANA 1018-8800 Acta Medica Peruana in Scopus Alberto Emilio Zolezzi Francis Copyright (c) 2024 ACTA MEDICA PERUANA 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 41 1 10.35663/amp.2024.411.3012 Diagnostic utility of cytopathology for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules in a Peruvian hospital <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine the diagnostic performance of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules. <strong>Methods:</strong> This is a retrospective study that assessed thyroid FNABs in Guillermo Almenara-Irigoyen National Hospital in Lima, Peru, during a three-year period. Cytopathologic diagnosis of biopsies was categorized using the Bethesda System, considering categories V and VI as malignant, and category II as benign. A single biopsy per patient was obtained, and results with the highest value in the Bethesda System were considered. All patients underwent thyroidectomy and histopathological results were characterized as malignant or benign. <strong>Results:</strong> One hundred and seventy-three patients were included in the study. Their cytopathology results were Bethesda II to VI. Cytological diagnosis showed that 47.4% of all patients were Bethesda VI. Nearly sixty percent (59.5%) of thyroid nodules were malignant in histopathology, and papillary carcinoma was the most frequent neoplasm. Diagnostic performance of FNAB was high when considering Bethesda V and VI as malignant, with 91.92% sensitivity, 71.67% specificity, 84.26 positive predictive value, 84.31% negative predictive value, and 84.28% precision. Positive verisimilitude rate was 3.39; but this significantly improved when only Bethesda VI was considered as malignant, with 90.7% sensitivity, 89.58% specificity, 90.3% precision, and 8.71 positive verisimilitude rate. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> FNAB showed good performance. This study proved to be quite useful in our healthcare facility for detecting errors and promote improvement, as well as a model for future research in different healthcare instances.</p> Laura Luna-Victorio María Fabiola Gamarra Chevarría Sandra Margarita Velazco Cabrejos Sofía Pilar Ildefonso Najarro Esteban Plasencia Dueñas Virgilio E Failoc-Rojas Copyright (c) 2024 ACTA MEDICA PERUANA 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 41 1 10.35663/amp.2024.411.2882 Comparing starting antiretroviral therapy for hiv before pregnancy versus during pregnancy as a risk factor associated to poor neonatal outcomes in a regional reference hospital in trujillo in 2015-2023 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine whether pre-conception initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy compared to pregnancy ARV initiation is a risk factor for adverse neonatal outcomes in women more than 18 years old in Belen Hospital in Trujillo (BHT). <strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This is an analytical observational study performed in a retrospective cohort. Sample size was 168 pregnant women diagnosed with HIV infection and receiving antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, who were divided in two groups: 84 women who started ARV prior to conception and 84 who started ARV after conception. The analysis was performed using the Chi-square test and relative risk (RR) was calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and 5% significance. <strong>Results:</strong> The rate of adverse neonatal outcomes was 48.8% in women starting ARV after conception and 21.4% in those who started ARV after conception, and this difference was significant (p&lt;0.001). Adverse neonatal outcomes, such as low birthweight (p= 0.015) and being small for gestational age (p= 0.035) were significantly associated with ARV initiation before pregnancy. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> ARV initiation before pregnancy seems to be associated with adverse neonatal outcomes when compared with ARV initiation during pregnancy, although this may be adjusted for potential confounding factors.</p> Roger Berardo Caciano Leiva José Carlos Chaman Castillo Copyright (c) 2024 ACTA MEDICA PERUANA 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 41 1 10.35663/amp.2024.411.2734 Budget execution of SIS financial transfers and availability of medical supplies in MINSA level III establishments in Lima <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Determine the relationship between the budget execution of financial transfers from the SIS (Seguro Integral de Salud) and the availability of medical supplies in third-level establishments of the Ministry of Health of Metropolitan Lima. <strong>Material and method:</strong> Analytical and cross-sectional study, carried out in the 20 level III establishments of the MINSA in Lima; Likewise, documentary information was used such as Closing Minutes of Financial Supervision of the Macroregional Management of the SIS from which information on budget execution was obtained and the availability of medical supplies was obtained from the Mundo IPRESS web portal (Institutions Providing Health Services). After evaluating normality with the Shapiro-Wilk test, the Spearman correlation test was used. <strong>Result:</strong> Overall budget execution was not related to the availability of medical supplies (rho=-0.014; p=0.955). The evaluation by components showed that budget execution on medicines was positively related to the availability of supplies (rho=0.417; p=0.045), which was also valid in the segmented analysis only for hospitals (rho: 0.594; p=0.032). Although budget execution in segmented materials and supplies for hospitals was related to the availability of supplies, this relationship was inverse (rho=-0.552; p=0.043). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The general budget execution of financial transfers from the SIS was not related to the availability of medical supplies, but the spending component on medicines was.</p> Fiorella Melissa Gamarra Mariano Gustavo Jorge Luis Zúñiga Mendoza Copyright (c) 2024 ACTA MEDICA PERUANA 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 41 1 10.35663/amp.2024.411.2858 Methanol poisoning: Analysis of a case series in two public hospitals <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with methanol poisoning in two public hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> Retrospective case series, 41 medical records of patients admitted to emergency with a diagnosis of methanol intoxication in the period 2018-2022 in two public hospitals in Lima-Peru were reviewed. Patients were from Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital and Hipolito Unanue Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 41 patients, 35 were male, with a mean age of 44.4 years. Nearly 50% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 23/41 (56,1%) required hemodialysis. All patients presented severe metabolic acidosis with elevated anion gap. Forty-eight hours after admission, 9/41 (21,9%) patients died. Of those who survived, 23/41 (56,1%) had sequelae: 21 patients developed toxic optic neuropathy and two patients had motor sequelae due to hemorrhagic stroke. Lower pH (6,7 vs. 7,1, p&lt;0,001) and bicarbonate (3 mmol/L vs.<br>4,9 mmol/L, p= 0,004) levels, as well as higher lactate (9,6 mmol/L vs 2,3 mmol/L, p&lt;0,001) and sodium (142,5 mmol/L vs. 138 mmol/L, p&lt;0,036) values were evidenced in the deceased patients compared to those who survived.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Methanol poisoning continues to be a condition that leaves sequelae and it may lead to death. Severe metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap, associated with respiratory and neurological symptoms are its main manifestations; therapy is based on the administration of ethanol, bicarbonate, and hemodialysis support.</p> Yanissa Venegas-Justiniano Karina Rosales-Mendoza Bethel Enríquez-Almanza Melinda Valdivia-Infantas Alan Barboza-Pastrana Abdías Hurtado-Aréstegui Copyright (c) 2024 ACTA MEDICA PERUANA 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 41 1 10.35663/amp.2024.411.2775 Evaluation of the G-8 test as a screening for comprehensive geriatric assessment in older patients with cancer <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of the G8 test in screening older adults with cancer who may benefit from a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA). <strong>Material and methods:</strong> This observational retrospective study was carried out in the Geriatrics Service of the Guillermo Almenara Hospital in Lima, Peru. CGA reports were reviewed in the electronic medical records of older adults (&gt; 60 years) with cancer, both outpatients and inpatients, between November 2022 and July 2023. Patients were classified according to the SIOG-1 (International Society of Geriatric Oncology) criteria into two groups: fit and non-fit patients (vulnerable + frail + too sick). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), were estimated for the G8 test. <strong>Results:</strong> 201 patients entered the study, 91 women (45.3%) and 110 (54.7%) men; their mean age was 76.2 ± 7.4 years. The most frequent neoplasms were colorectal, stomach, prostate, and bile ducts. The prevalence of eligible and unfit patients was 23.4% and 76.6%, respectively. When the G8 test score was ≤11, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and AUC were 73.4% (95% Confidence Interval: 65.7- 80.2%), 91.5% (79.6%-97.6%), 96.6% (91.7-98.6%), and 89% (84-93%), respectively. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The G8 test with a score ≤11 would have high sensitivity and specificity for identifying vulnerable or frail patients with cancer who could benefit from the CGA.</p> Teodoro J. Oscanoa Edwin Cieza-Macedo Silvia Leon-Curiñaupa Jose Amado-Tineo Copyright (c) 2024 ACTA MEDICA PERUANA 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 41 1 10.35663/amp.2024.411.2904 Schwannoma of the right colon: case report <p>Colon schwannoma is an extremely rare entity that may debut as a subepithelial lesion with ulceration signs, such as melena and anemia. Imaging studies guide us to localization, while a colonoscopy biopsy is not helpful. Many times, the diagnosis and treatment are made with lesion resection, and the final diagnosis is postoperatively made with histopathology and immunohistochemistry, which shows intense positivity for S100 and vimentin in tumor cells with a KI67 proliferation index of less than 1%, therefore, it is concluded that this is a benign lesion. We present this case due to its pre- and intraoperative diagnostic difficulty, non-specific symptoms, and its definitive diagnosis that was achieved with immunohistochemistry.</p> José Richard Tenazoa Villalobos Edgar Fermín Yan-Quiroz Isac Adesman Miranda Narro Copyright (c) 2024 ACTA MEDICA PERUANA 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 41 1 10.35663/amp.2024.411.2814 Paradoxical cerebral embolism due to transiently patent foramen ovale as a complication of massive pulmonary thromboembolism: Case Report <p>Paradoxical cerebral embolism always requires the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO); in our case, this event occurred due to a transient phenomenon, which was the acute overload of the right heart chambers and the opening of the PFO due to increased pressures as a consequence of massive pulmonary thromboembolism. After undergoing arthroscopy, this patient presented with visual field loss and progressive dyspnea, ultimately leading to mechanical ventilation and severe obstructive shock. An angiotomography was performed, revealing an obstructive thrombus in the right pulmonary artery. The patient successfully underwent thrombolysis, and she was discharged from the intensive care unit after 45 days. Ultimately, protein C deficiency was diagnosed, and permanent anticoagulation was initiated. The presence of motor deficit and dyspnea in a post-knee surgery patient should raise suspicion of pulmonary thromboembolism. Thrombolysis remains the treatment of choice, and it should be timely prescribed and performed.</p> Rodrigo Jesús Flores Palacios Yéssica Paola Reynoso Rejas Andrés Guillermo Gutiérrez Avila Copyright (c) 2024 ACTA MEDICA PERUANA 2024-05-19 2024-05-19 41 1 10.35663/amp.2024.411.2755 Cerebellar vasculitis due to systemic lupus erythematosus and suboccipital decompression: case report <p>Arterial vasculitis or cerebellar vasculitis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are extremely infrequent, and these might be included within cases of neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE), cerebellar stroke in SLE, and within the group of central nervous system vasculitis due to SLE. The addition of surgical management to this condition has been reported in few publications. We present the case of a 18- year old female patient with SLE, NPSLE, and cerebellar stroke, highly suspicious of inflammatory vasculitis affecting cerebellar arteries, in whom, in spite of medical management, suboccipital decompression was performed. Inflammatory vasculitis of cerebellar arteries in SLE is an infrequent cause of cerebellar stroke, and it has elevated mortality rates. There is limited scientific evidence with respect to suboccipital decompression for the management of this condition.</p> Elder Castro-Castillo Paris González-Quinteros Copyright (c) 2024 ACTA MEDICA PERUANA 2024-06-17 2024-06-17 41 1 10.35663/amp.2024.411.2717 What do we achieve by reducing mechanical ventilation associated pneumonia? <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nilton Yhuri Carreazo Carmen Rosas-Ajalcriña Copyright (c) 2024 ACTA MEDICA PERUANA 2024-05-19 2024-05-19 41 1 10.35663/amp.2024.411.2914